Powerful Geography
Geography Content

Geography Content

Geographic Content Knowledge

Physical Geography / Environment and Society


Knowing and applying geographic information about ecosystems and ecological processes (e.g., vegetation, wildlife, natural habitats)

  • Soil and Plant Scientist
  • Natural Sciences Manager
  • Zoologist and Wildlife Biologist
  • Forester
  • Biological Science Technician
Human Geography / Places and Region / Environment and Society

Cultural Geography

Knowing and applying geographic information about culture and cultural processes (e.g., religion, language, ethnicity, diffusion, meaning of landscapes, cultural significance of place)

  • Tour Guide and Escort
  • Area, Ethnic, and Cultural Studies Teacher
  • Interpreter & Translator
  • Historic Preservationist
  • Writer/Editor
Human Geography / Environment and Society

Economic Geography

Knowing and applying geographic information about the economy and economic processes (e.g., labor, development, industry, agriculture, transportation, trade, resources, land use, technology change)

  • Transportation Manager
  • Community Resource Specialist
  • Market Researcher
  • Business Development
  • Real Estate Appraiser
  • Environmental Economist
Physical Geography / Place and Region


Knowing and applying geographic information about geology and the processes that shape physical landscapes (e.g. soils, hydrology, topography, erosion)

  • Soil and Plant Specialist
  • Water Resources Specialist
  • Environmental Scientist
  • Geophysicist
Environment and Society / Place and Region / Human and Physical Geography

Human-Environment Interaction

Knowing and applying geographic information about relationships between nature and society (e.g., pollution from industrial development, economic effects of drought)

  • Tour Guide
  • Accredited Land Consultant
  • Manager of Sustainability
  • Environmental Affairs Specialist
Environment and Society / Physical Geography

Natural Hazards

Knowing and applying geographic information about natural hazards (e.g., hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, fire)

  • Emergency Management Specialist
  • Forest Fire Inspector
  • Environmental Consultant
  • Ecological Risk Assessor
  • Geotechnical Engineer
  • Hazards Analyst
Human Geography / Place and Region

Political Geography

Knowing and applying geographic information about political systems and processes (e.g., governments, political activism, nongovernmental organizations, nations, states, international relations, nationalism)

  • Community Organizer
  • Policy Consultant
  • Policy Researcher
  • Lobbyist
Human Geography / Place and Region / Environment and Society

Population Geography

Knowing and applying geographic information about population, demography, and demographic processes (e.g., population density, migration, birth and death rates, fertility rates)

  • Market Analyst
  • Population, Real Estate, Community Association Manager
  • Urban and Regional Planner
  • Demographer
  • Public Health Officer
Place and Region / Physical Geography / Human Geography / Environment and Society

Regional Geography

Possessing and applying knowledge of the physical and human geography of a specific country or world region

  • Urban and Regional Planner
  • Geointelligence Specialist
  • Tour Guide & Escort
  • Interpreter & Translator
  • Historic Preservationist
  • Community Developer
Physical Geography / Place and Region

Weather and Climate

Knowing and applying geographic information about weather, climate, and atmospheric processes (e.g., temperature, precipitation, air quality)

  • Climate Change Analyst
  • Weatherization Installers and Technician
  • Atmospheric and Space Scientist
  • Climatologist

Geographic Technology



Designing paper or digital maps

  • Cartographer and Photogrammetrist
  • Surveying and Mapping Technician
  • Civil Drafter
  • Graphics Editor
  • Digital Cartographer

Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

Using GIS to acquire, manage, display, and analyze spatial data in digital form

  • Geospatial Information Scientist and Technologist
  • Geospatial Analyst
  • GIS Developer
  • Logistics Analyst
  • Transportation Planner
  • Environmental Consultant


Recording, measuring, and plotting electromagnetic radiation data from aerial photographs and remote sensing systems against land features identified in ground control

  • Cartographer and Photogrammetrist
  • Commercial Pilot
  • Surveyor
  • Photogrammetric Compilation Specialist
  • Geodesist

Remote Sensing

Understanding the underlying theories and methods related to acquiring an object without contacting it physically (e.g., aerial photography, radar and satellite imaging)

  • Remote Sensing Scientist and Technologist
  • Geointelligence Specialist
  • Remote Sensing Analyst
  • Sensor Specialist
  • Radar and Sonar Technician

Geographic Skills


Field Methods

Using interviews, questionnaires, observations, photography, maps, and other techniques for measuring geographic information in the field

  • Surveyor
  • Water Quality Scientist
  • Soil Scientist
  • Field Interviewer
  • Environmental Health Specialist

Spatial Statistics

Using quantitative methods to process spatial data for the purpose of making calculations, models, and inferences about space, spatial patterns, and spatial relationships

  • GIS Technician
  • Statistical Assistant
  • Architect

Spatial Thinking

Identifying, explaining, and finding meaning in spatial patterns and relationships (e.g., site conditions, how places are similar and different, the influence of a land feature on its neighbors, the nature of transitions between places, how places are linked at local, regional, and/or global scales)

  • Urban and Regional Planner
  • Surveyor
  • Geophysical Data Technician
  • Spatial Analysis Consultant
  • Environmental Specialist

Geographic Perspectives


Diversity Perspective

Using knowledge about population diversity (e.g., gender, ethnicity, race, sexuality, disability) to interpret social, economic, and political issues in different place

  • Human Resources Manager
  • Academic Advisor
  • Market Researcher
  • Public Diplomacy Officer
  • Travel Guide

Global Perspective

Possessing and applying knowledge of how people, places, and regions are linked by global networks and processes (e.g., globalization, international trade, immigration, Internet technology, global climate system)

  • Logistics Manager
  • Mapping Technician
  • Geodetic Surveyor
  • International Development Specialist
  • Journalist
  • Foreign Services Officer

Interdisciplinary Perspective

Drawing on and synthesizing the information, concepts, and methods of the natural and social sciences for geographic research and application

  • International Development Specialist
  • Urban and Regional Planner
  • Humanitarian Affairs Analyst
  • Program Manager